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11/30/2005 11:34:35 AM
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Special Characters

Character entity references for ISO 8859-1 characters

  &#160 nbsp no-break space = non-breaking space U+00A0 ISOnum
¡ &#161 iexcl inverted exclamation mark U+00A1 ISOnum
¢ &#162 cent cent sign U+00A2 ISOnum
£ &#163 pound pound sign U+00A3 ISOnum
¤ &#164 curren currency sign U+00A4 ISOnum
¥ &#165 yen yen sign = yuan sign U+00A5 ISOnum
¦ &#166 brvbar broken bar = broken vertical bar U+00A6 ISOnum
§ &#167 sect section sign U+00A7 ISOnum
¨ &#168 uml diaeresis = spacing diaeresis U+00A8 ISOdia
© &#169 copy copyright sign U+00A9 ISOnum
ª &#170 ordf feminine ordinal indicator U+00AA ISOnum
« &#171 laquo left-pointing double angle quotation mark = left pointing guillemet U+00AB ISOnum
¬ &#172 not not sign U+00AC ISOnum
­ &#173 shy soft hyphen = discretionary hyphen U+00AD ISOnum
® &#174 reg registered sign = registered trade mark sign U+00AE ISOnum
¯ &#175 macr macron = spacing macron = overline = APL overbar U+00AF ISOdia
° &#176 deg degree sign U+00B0 ISOnum
± &#177 plusmn plus-minus sign = plus-or-minus sign U+00B1 ISOnum
² &#178 sup2 superscript two = superscript digit two = squared U+00B2 ISOnum
³ &#179 sup3 superscript three = superscript digit three = cubed U+00B3 ISOnum
´ &#180 acute acute accent = spacing acute U+00B4 ISOdia
µ &#181 micro micro sign U+00B5 ISOnum
&#182 para pilcrow sign = paragraph sign U+00B6 ISOnum
· &#183 middot middle dot = Georgian comma = Greek middle dot U+00B7 ISOnum
¸ &#184 cedil cedilla = spacing cedilla U+00B8 ISOdia
¹ &#185 sup1 superscript one = superscript digit one U+00B9 ISOnum
º &#186 ordm masculine ordinal indicator U+00BA ISOnum
» &#187 raquo right-pointing double angle quotation mark = right pointing guillemet U+00BB ISOnum
¼ &#188 frac14 vulgar fraction one quarter = fraction one quarter U+00BC ISOnum
½ &#189 frac12 vulgar fraction one half = fraction one half U+00BD ISOnum
¾ &#190 frac34 vulgar fraction three quarters = fraction three quarters U+00BE ISOnum
¿ &#191 iquest inverted question mark = turned question mark U+00BF ISOnum
À &#192 Agrave latin capital letter A with grave = latin capital letter A grave U+00C0 ISOlat1
Á &#193 Aacute latin capital letter A with acute U+00C1 ISOlat1
 &#194 Acirc latin capital letter A with circumflex U+00C2 ISOlat1
à &#195 Atilde latin capital letter A with tilde U+00C3 ISOlat1
Ä &#196 Auml latin capital letter A with diaeresis U+00C4 ISOlat1
Å &#197 Aring latin capital letter A with ring above = latin capital letter A ring U+00C5 ISOlat1
Æ &#198 AElig latin capital letter AE = latin capital ligature AE U+00C6 ISOlat1
Ç &#199 Ccedil latin capital letter C with cedilla U+00C7 ISOlat1
È &#200 Egrave latin capital letter E with grave U+00C8 ISOlat1
É &#201 Eacute latin capital letter E with acute U+00C9 ISOlat1
Ê &#202 Ecirc latin capital letter E with circumflex U+00CA ISOlat1
Ë &#203 Euml latin capital letter E with diaeresis U+00CB ISOlat1
Ì &#204 Igrave latin capital letter I with grave U+00CC ISOlat1
Í &#205 Iacute latin capital letter I with acute U+00CD ISOlat1
Î &#206 Icirc latin capital letter I with circumflex U+00CE ISOlat1
Ï &#207 Iuml latin capital letter I with diaeresis U+00CF ISOlat1
Ð &#208 ETH latin capital letter ETH U+00D0 ISOlat1
Ñ &#209 Ntilde latin capital letter N with tilde U+00D1 ISOlat1
Ò &#210 Ograve latin capital letter O with grave U+00D2 ISOlat1
Ó &#211 Oacute latin capital letter O with acute U+00D3 ISOlat1
Ô &#212 Ocirc latin capital letter O with circumflex U+00D4 ISOlat1
Õ &#213 Otilde latin capital letter O with tilde U+00D5 ISOlat1
Ö &#214 Ouml latin capital letter O with diaeresis U+00D6 ISOlat1
× &#215 times multiplication sign U+00D7 ISOnum
Ø &#216 Oslash latin capital letter O with stroke = latin capital letter O slash U+00D8 ISOlat1
Ù &#217 Ugrave latin capital letter U with grave U+00D9 ISOlat1
Ú &#218 Uacute latin capital letter U with acute U+00DA ISOlat1
Û &#219 Ucirc latin capital letter U with circumflex U+00DB ISOlat1
Ü &#220 Uuml latin capital letter U with diaeresis U+00DC ISOlat1
Ý &#221 Yacute latin capital letter Y with acute U+00DD ISOlat1
Þ &#222 THORN latin capital letter THORN U+00DE ISOlat1
ß &#223 szlig latin small letter sharp s = ess-zed U+00DF ISOlat1
à &#224 agrave latin small letter a with grave = latin small letter a grave U+00E0 ISOlat1
á &#225 aacute latin small letter a with acute U+00E1 ISOlat1
â &#226 acirc latin small letter a with circumflex U+00E2 ISOlat1
ã &#227 atilde latin small letter a with tilde U+00E3 ISOlat1
ä &#228 auml latin small letter a with diaeresis U+00E4 ISOlat1
å &#229 aring latin small letter a with ring above = latin small letter a ring U+00E5 ISOlat1
æ &#230 aelig latin small letter ae = latin small ligature ae U+00E6 ISOlat1
ç &#231 ccedil latin small letter c with cedilla U+00E7 ISOlat1
è &#232 egrave latin small letter e with grave U+00E8 ISOlat1
é &#233 eacute latin small letter e with acute U+00E9 ISOlat1
ê &#234 ecirc latin small letter e with circumflex U+00EA ISOlat1
ë &#235 euml latin small letter e with diaeresis U+00EB ISOlat1
ì &#236 igrave latin small letter i with grave U+00EC ISOlat1
í &#237 iacute latin small letter i with acute U+00ED ISOlat1
î &#238 icirc latin small letter i with circumflex U+00EE ISOlat1
ï &#239 iuml latin small letter i with diaeresis U+00EF ISOlat1
ð &#240 eth latin small letter eth U+00F0 ISOlat1
ñ &#241 ntilde latin small letter n with tilde U+00F1 ISOlat1
ò &#242 ograve latin small letter o with grave U+00F2 ISOlat1
ó &#243 oacute latin small letter o with acute U+00F3 ISOlat1
ô &#244 ocirc latin small letter o with circumflex U+00F4 ISOlat1
õ &#245 otilde latin small letter o with tilde U+00F5 ISOlat1
ö &#246 ouml latin small letter o with diaeresis U+00F6 ISOlat1
÷ &#247 divide division sign U+00F7 ISOnum
ø &#248 oslash latin small letter o with stroke = latin small letter o slash U+00F8 ISOlat1
ù &#249 ugrave latin small letter u with grave U+00F9 ISOlat1
ú &#250 uacute latin small letter u with acute U+00FA ISOlat1
û &#251 ucirc latin small letter u with circumflex U+00FB ISOlat1
ü &#252 uuml latin small letter u with diaeresis U+00FC ISOlat1
ý &#253 yacute latin small letter y with acute U+00FD ISOlat1
þ &#254 thorn latin small letter thorn U+00FE ISOlat1
ÿ &#255 yuml latin small letter y with diaeresis U+00FF ISOlat1

Character entity references for symbols, mathematical symbols, and Greek letters

Latin Extended-B
ƒ &#402 fnof latin small f with hook = function = florin U+0192 ISOtech
Α &#913 Alpha greek capital letter alpha U+0391 ISOgrk3
Β &#914 Beta greek capital letter beta U+0392 ISOgrk3
Γ &#915 Gamma greek capital letter gamma U+0393 ISOgrk3
Δ &#916 Delta greek capital letter delta U+0394 ISOgrk3
Ε &#917 Epsilon greek capital letter epsilon U+0395 ISOgrk3
Ζ &#918 Zeta greek capital letter zeta U+0396 ISOgrk3
Η &#919 Eta greek capital letter eta U+0397 ISOgrk3
Θ &#920 Theta greek capital letter theta U+0398 ISOgrk3
Ι &#921 Iota greek capital letter iota U+0399 ISOgrk3
Κ &#922 Kappa greek capital letter kappa U+039A ISOgrk3
Λ &#923 Lambda greek capital letter lambda U+039B ISOgrk3
Μ &#924 Mu greek capital letter mu U+039C ISOgrk3
Ν &#925 Nu greek capital letter nu U+039D ISOgrk3
Ξ &#926 Xi greek capital letter xi U+039E ISOgrk3
Ο &#927 Omicron greek capital letter omicron U+039F ISOgrk3
Π &#928 Pi greek capital letter pi U+03A0 ISOgrk3
Ρ &#929 Rho greek capital letter rho U+03A1 ISOgrk3
there is no Sigmaf, and no U+03A2 character either
Σ &#931 Sigma greek capital letter sigma U+03A3 ISOgrk3
Τ &#932 Tau greek capital letter tau U+03A4 ISOgrk3
Υ &#933 Upsilon greek capital letter upsilon U+03A5 ISOgrk3
Φ &#934 Phi greek capital letter phi U+03A6 ISOgrk3
Χ &#935 Chi greek capital letter chi U+03A7 ISOgrk3
Ψ &#936 Psi greek capital letter psi U+03A8 ISOgrk3
Ω &#937 Omega greek capital letter omega U+03A9 ISOgrk3
α &#945 alpha greek small letter alpha U+03B1 ISOgrk3
β &#946 beta greek small letter beta U+03B2 ISOgrk3
γ &#947 gamma greek small letter gamma U+03B3 ISOgrk3
δ &#948 delta greek small letter delta U+03B4 ISOgrk3
ε &#949 epsilon greek small letter epsilon U+03B5 ISOgrk3
ζ &#950 zeta greek small letter zeta U+03B6 ISOgrk3
η &#951 eta greek small letter eta U+03B7 ISOgrk3
θ &#952 theta greek small letter theta U+03B8 ISOgrk3
ι &#953 iota greek small letter iota U+03B9 ISOgrk3
κ &#954 kappa greek small letter kappa U+03BA ISOgrk3
λ &#955 lambda greek small letter lambda U+03BB ISOgrk3
μ &#956 mu greek small letter mu U+03BC ISOgrk3
ν &#957 nu greek small letter nu U+03BD ISOgrk3
ξ &#958 xi greek small letter xi U+03BE ISOgrk3
ο &#959 omicron greek small letter omicron U+03BF ISOgrk3
π &#960 pi greek small letter pi U+03C0 ISOgrk3
ρ &#961 rho greek small letter rho U+03C1 ISOgrk3
ς &#962 sigmaf greek small letter final sigma U+03C2 ISOgrk3
σ &#963 sigma greek small letter sigma U+03C3 ISOgrk3
τ &#964 tau greek small letter tau U+03C4 ISOgrk3
υ &#965 upsilon greek small letter upsilon U+03C5 ISOgrk3
φ &#966 phi greek small letter phi U+03C6 ISOgrk3
χ &#967 chi greek small letter chi U+03C7 ISOgrk3
ψ &#968 psi greek small letter psi U+03C8 ISOgrk3
ω &#969 omega greek small letter omega U+03C9 ISOgrk3
ϑ &#977 thetasym greek small letter theta symbol U+03D1 ISOgrk3
ϒ &#978 upsih greek upsilon with hook symbol U+03D2 ISOgrk3
ϖ &#982 piv greek pi symbol U+03D6 ISOgrk3
General Punctuation
&#8226 bull bullet = black small circle U+2022 ISOpub
bullet is NOT the same as bullet operator U+2219
&#8230 hellip horizontal ellipsis = three dot leader U+2026 ISOpub
&#8242 prime prime = minutes = feet U+2032 ISOtech
&#8243 Prime double prime = seconds = inches U+2033 ISOtech
&#8254 oline overline = spacing overscore U+203E NEW
&#8260 frasl fraction slash U+2044NEW
Letterlike Symbols
&#8472 weierp script capital P = power set = Weierstrass p U+2118 ISOamso
&#8465 image blackletter capital I = imaginary part U+2111 ISOamso
&#8476 real blackletter capital R = real part symbol U+211C ISOamso
&#8482 trade trade mark sign U+2122 ISOnum
&#8501 alefsym alef symbol = first transfinite cardinal U+2135 NEW
alef symbol is NOT the same as hebrew letter alef, U+05D0 although the same glyph could be used to depict both characters
&#8592 larr leftwards arrow U+2190 ISOnum
&#8593 uarr upwards arrow U+2191 ISOnum
&#8594 rarr rightwards arrow U+2192 ISOnum
&#8595 darr downwards arrow U+2193 ISOnum
&#8596 harr left right arrow U+2194 ISOamsa
&#8629 crarr downwards arrow with corner leftwards = carriage return U+21B5 NEW
&#8656 lArr leftwards double arrow U+21D0 ISOtech
ISO 10646 does not say that lArr is the same as the 'is implied by' arrow but also does not have any other character for that function. So ? lArr can be used for 'is implied by' as ISOtech suggests
&#8657 uArr upwards double arrow U+21D1 ISOamsa
&#8658 rArr rightwards double arrow U+21D2 ISOtech
ISO 10646 does not say this is the 'implies' character but does not have another character with this function so? rArr can be used for 'implies' as ISOtech suggests
&#8659 dArr downwards double arrow U+21D3 ISOamsa
&#8660 hArr left right double arrow U+21D4 ISOamsa
Mathematical Operators
&#8704 forall for all U+2200 ISOtech
&#8706 part partial differential U+2202 ISOtech
&#8707 exist there exists U+2203 ISOtech
&#8709 empty empty set = null set = diameter U+2205 ISOamso
&#8711 nabla nabla = backward difference U+2207 ISOtech
&#8712 isin element of U+2208 ISOtech
&#8713 notin not an element of U+2209 ISOtech
&#8715 ni contains as member U+220B ISOtech
&#8719 prod n-ary product = product sign U+220F ISOamsb
prod is NOT the same character as U+03A0 ‘greek capital letter pi' though the same glyph might be used for both
&#8721 sum n-ary sumation U+2211 ISOamsb
sum is NOT the same character as U+03A3 'greek capital letter sigma' though the same glyph might be used for both
&#8722 minus minus sign U+2212 ISOtech
&#8727 lowast asterisk operator U+2217 ISOtech
&#8730 radic square root = radical sign U+221A ISOtech
&#8733 prop proportional to U+221D ISOtech
&#8734 infin infinity U+221E ISOtech
&#8736 ang angle U+2220 ISOamso
&#8743 and logical and = wedge U+2227 ISOtech
&#8744 or logical or = vee U+2228 ISOtech
&#8745 cap intersection = cap U+2229 ISOtech
&#8746 cup union = cup U+222A ISOtech
&#8747 int integral U+222B ISOtech
&#8756 there4 therefore U+2234 ISOtech
&#8764 sim tilde operator = varies with = similar to U+223C ISOtech
tilde operator is NOT the same character as the tilde, U+007E, although the same glyph might be used to represent both
&#8773 cong approximately equal to U+2245 ISOtech
&#8776 asymp almost equal to = asymptotic to\ U+2248 ISOamsr
&#8800 ne not equal to U+2260 ISOtech
&#8801 equiv identical to U+2261 ISOtech
&#8804 le less-than or equal to U+2264 ISOtech
&#8805 ge greater-than or equal to U+2265 ISOtech
&#8834 sub subset of U+2282 ISOtech
&#8835 sup superset of U+2283 ISOtech
note that nsup, 'not a superset of, U+2283' is not covered by the Symbol font encoding and is not included. Should it be for symmetry? It is in ISOamsn
&#8836 nsub not a subset of U+2284 ISOamsn
&#8838 sube subset of or equal to U+2286 ISOtech
&#8839 supe superset of or equal to U+2287 ISOtech
&#8853 oplus circled plus = direct sum U+2295 ISOamsb
&#8855 otimes circled times = vector product U+2297 ISOamsb
&#8869 perp up tack = orthogonal to = perpendicular U+22A5 ISOtech
&#8901 sdot dot operator U+22C5 ISOamsb
dot operator is NOT the same character as U+00B7 middle dot
Miscellaneous Technical
&#8968 lceil left ceiling = apl upstile U+2308 ISOamsc
&#8969 rceil right ceiling U+2309 ISOamsc
&#8970 lfloor left floor = apl downstile U+230A ISOamsc
&#8971 rfloor right floor U+230B ISOamsc
&#9001 lang left-pointing angle bracket = bra U+2329 ISOtech
lang is NOT the same character as U+003C 'less than' or U+2039 'single left-pointing angle quotation mark'
&#9002 rang right-pointing angle bracket = ket U+232A ISOtech
rang is NOT the same character as U+003E 'greater than' or U+203A 'single right-pointing angle quotation mark'
Geometric Shapes
&#9674 loz lozenge U+25CA ISOpub
Miscellaneous Symbols
&#9824 spades black spade suit U+2660 ISOpub
&#9827 clubs black club suit = shamrock U+2663 ISOpub
&#9829 hearts black heart suit = valentine U+2665 ISOpub
&#9830 diams black diamond suit U+2666 ISOpub
black here seems to mean filled as opposed to hollow

Character entity references for markup-significant and internationalization characters

C0 Controls and Basic Latin
" &#34 quot quotation mark = APL quote U+0022 ISOnum
& &#38 amp ampersand U+0026 ISOnum
< &#60 lt less-than sign U+003C ISOnum
> &#62 gt greater-than sign U+003E ISOnum
Latin Extended-A
Π&#338 OElig latin capital ligature OE U+0152 ISOlat2
œ &#339 oelig latin small ligature oe U+0153 ISOlat2
ligature is a misnomer, this is a separate character in some languages
Š &#352 Scaron latin capital letter S with caron U+0160 ISOlat2
š &#353 scaron latin small letter s with caron U+0161 ISOlat2
Ÿ &#376 Yuml latin capital letter Y with diaeresis U+0178 ISOlat2
Spacing Modifier Letters
ˆ &#710 circ modifier letter circumflex accent U+02C6 ISOpub
˜ &#732 tilde small tilde U+02DC ISOdia
General Punctuation
&#8194 ensp en space U+2002 ISOpub
&#8195 emsp em space U+2003 ISOpub
&#8201 thinsp thin space U+2009 ISOpub
&#8204 zwnj zero width non-joiner U+200C NEW RFC 2070
&#8205 zwj zero width joiner U+200D NEW RFC 2070
&#8206 lrm left-to-right mark U+200E NEW RFC 2070
&#8207 rlm right-to-left mark U+200F NEW RFC 2070
&#8211 ndash en dash U+2013 ISOpub
&#8212 mdash em dash U+2014 ISOpub
&#8216 lsquo left single quotation mark U+2018 ISOnum
&#8217 rsquo right single quotation mark U+2019 ISOnum
&#8218 sbquo single low-9 quotation mark U+201A NEW
&#8220 ldquo left double quotation mark U+201C ISOnum
&#8221 rdquo right double quotation mark U+201D ISOnum
&#8222 bdquo double low-9 quotation mark U+201E NEW
&#8224 dagger dagger U+2020 ISOpub
&#8225 Dagger double dagger U+2021 ISOpub
&#8240 permil per mille sign U+2030 ISOtech
&#8249 lsaquo single left-pointing angle quotation mark U+2039 ISO proposed
lsaquo is proposed but not yet ISO standardized
&#8250 rsaquo single right-pointing angle quotation mark U+203A ISO proposed
rsaquo is proposed but not yet ISO standardized
&#8364 euro euro sign U+20AC NEW
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